Experieced Concrete Lifting with Polymeric Resins (Foams)
Our technology solves problems of differential subsidences of structures, quickly and with minimal invasiveness. The hydro-insensitive polymers, once injected into the soil, expand, and compact-consolidating the soils in a controlled way. The application of polymeric resins is carried out through injections in places and at defined depths in accordance with the objectives of the project and the information provided by the RODAR® System.
The polymer is injected in a liquid state into the ground to be stabilized; as the process progresses, the material reacts chemically (in a matter of seconds), changing from liquid to solid and creating an insoluble, elastic, lightweight compound with seismic damping capacity. The chemical reaction generates a strong increase in volume (between 8 and 30 times the original) depending on the expansion pressure of the polymer and the resistance opposed by the surrounding soils and structures. Each injection continues until movement is observed in the installed laser levels for real-time monitoring. Once the polymer has filled in the existing voids, it tends to expand in all directions, mainly in paths where it meets the least resistance, which are the areas of low consolidation-compaction, then the areas with moisture and so on. When we observe in real time with the laser equipment that the structures begin to lift, it means that the stabilization action has ended and the energy is being used to lift the structure, since the upward direction is the one that offers the least resistance. Meanwhile, the surrounding terrain acquires a higher carrying capacity than it initially had. The hydro-insensitivity polymeric resins makes them immune to seasonal changes, creates a hydraulic seal in the intervened structures, reduces the capillary rise of clay towards the more resistant layers near the surface, improves load capacity of soils (increases VRS-CBR), eliminates differential settlements by reducing weight and water content in the different strata selectively, and increases the useful life of the infrastructure and structures receiving the treatment.
General Structures We have been working for decades in several projects of soil stabilization and releveling of infrastructure for different types of industries, including housing, railroads, public infrastructure, highways, industrial floors, warehousing, ports, and airports. The tender is requiring the contractor to have past years’ experience and proven track record like this project’s nature. Some flagship projects are the following:
Problem: Fracture detected by migration of solid particles that caused serious cavities under the asphalt layer and “crocodile skin” failure. The differential settlements of the subsoil caused tension and compression stresses in the pavement structure. Intervention: Soil stabilization and leveling of the body of asphalt pavement. Outcomes: Risks by driving cars were avoided by stabilizing and leveling the road structure without closing the highway circulation.
Problem: Heavy rains caused by a Hurricane in 2011 severely affected the structure in two sections of a major highway in Latin America. The downward flow of the hills formed channels that weakened the base and sub-base. Intervention: Soil stabilization by injecting polymers at different depths to restore and increase the capacity of the base and sub-base of the highway structure. Execution time: 15 days organized on two work fronts. Outcomes: The structure of the road was restored, in a fast, safe, and reliable way, without closing the circulation of vehicles during the development of the works.
Problem: with a total length of 17 km, a surface section of a major subway system, had differential subsidence in 95% of the total section. There was a decrease in service quality due to slow transfers. Intervention: Soil stabilization and leveling of the track box. Outcomes Risks were avoided by stabilizing and leveling the structure of the track box without closing subway operations.
Large household development
Problem: Houses that registered separations in the main and rear façade with respect to the adjacent structure. The differential settlements caused tension and compressive stresses in the foundation slab. Intervention: Soil stabilization and leveling of approximately 200 houses. Outcomes: Leveling of all houses was achieved without the need to vacate them.
Industrial buildings and warehouses
Problem: One storage warehouse of a large logistics company, presented differential settlements in 4,000 m2 of surface. The existing critical subsidence was 6 cm before a major earthquake; after that event, it worsened with subsidence of up to 24 cm. Intervention: Soil stabilization with filling of cavities and leveling of 25cm thick concrete slabs. Outcomes: Existing settlements were leveled avoiding total closure, and with a minimum movement of racks and merchandise.
Problem: Improve the load-bearing capacity of the soil, for supporting a second floor of a freeway in a major city. Intervention: Soil stabilization through the injection of high-density hydro-insensitive polymers, up to a depth of 12 meters. Execution time: 48 effective working hours, divided in 12-hour journeys, during 2013. Outcomes: With 3-inch diameter perforations and injection of hydro-insensitive polymers, it was possible to stabilize the existing soils that would support the freeway second floor. The vehicle circulation remained open.
Since early 1990’s polymers injection has been used for airport’s runways maintenance and repairing, mainly for stabilizing, lifting and leveling. Some of those projects are the following:
San Francisco Int’l Airport – San Francisco, California
Los Angeles Int’l Airport (LAX) – Los Angeles, California
Air Force Research Lab at Tyndall AFB – Panama City, Florida
San Jose Airport – San Jose, California
Andrews Air Force Base – Maryland
In 2008, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command of the US Navy, through the Engineering Service Center, successfully tested the Foam-Injection System for Airfield Damage Repair (ADR). They tested with excellent results, a two-part, high expansion polyurethane foam to compact sub-grade soil in bomb craters, determining that this system eliminated the difficult and time-consuming process of compacting soils in thin layers inside craters.
Another relevant experience in the airport sector includes:
China Government: participation in the Basic and Detail Engineering for the construction of public infrastructure, including airports, in 10 provinces.
South Korea Government: development of joint projects with the Airport Industry Technology Research Institute.
Italy: several airports like Fumicino, La Mezia Terme, Linate in Milano.
O’Hare Int’l Airport: Chicago, Illinois
Hobby Airport: Houston, Texas.
Raleigh Durham Airport: North Carolina.
Mexico City Int’l Airport and New Mexico City Int’l Airport
Here we present a use case for high-technology studies and polyurethane injection in a Latin American airport. Problem: Settlements of more than 25cm in a runway area comprised of 600 concrete slabs Intervention: Soil stabilization and leveling of concrete slabs. Outcomes: Cancellation of airport operations was avoided. Of the 600 affected slabs, only 3 of them in the runway shoulder were replaced.
Robotic vectorial geomatic survey This study offered data in 3D quality, as well as high dynamic range (HDR) images with acquisition of 1 million points per second and ranges of up to 270m. With this versatility, precision and speed, the geometric deformation problem and its solution were found in conjunction with Geotechnics and Geophysics by applying three-dimensional finite element models.
Electrical resistivity/conductivity survey The result of this study showed physical-chemical conditions to which the different layers of the subsoil were subjected, such as the degree of humidity saturation.
With the integration of the results, an executive project was designed consisting of the rehabilitation of damaged slabs in the center and margins of different critical points of the runway, recovering up, to more than 25cm in different areas. Thanks to the method of stabilization and re-leveling of structures based on the injection of state-of-the-art polymers, which set in 30 minutes and have resistance ranges of more than 5,000 Kg / cm², providing a quality service in the execution of the work, real-time laser monitoring and proactive programs with work journeys that began at 12:30 am and ended at 4:30 am, it was possible to avoid the cancellation of operations, millionaire losses and the safety of users increased. Thanks to the replacement of damaged slabs with precast slabs, closures of the runway were avoided; these slabs were made with premixed concrete of f'c = 450 Kg / cm², armed with a non-corrosive steel structure that had a sensor, capable of determining the state of hardening and maturing of the concrete, our work progress was measured in real-time with a high-resolution drone. This method managed to exceed all expectations and the success was consumed in a quarter of the time expected with traditional methods without closing operations for a single day. With traditional technologies it would have been necessary to suspend operations for months.
The high performance RODAR® technology has been designed with funds of:
The United States Army
The United States Navy
The United States Air Force
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
RODAR® technology is a series of patented systems or industrial secrets, utilized for analyzing in a precise, fast, safe, and high-resolution way, the conditions existing in different types of soils and structures, also modeling the soil-structure behavior and interaction with different geotechnical and geopolymeric solutions, using super materials and/or improving existing soil and paving structures. The technology is complemented using some auxiliary systems, such as:
Laser three-dimensional digital information acquisition systems.
ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY/CONDUCTIVITY SURVEY Modules that can be 28, 56 or 112 electrodes are installed, which are integrated into the transmission and reception circuit in an automatic sequential way. One electrode at a time in sequential form constitutes the emission circuit and supplies direct current on the ground surface; the electric current circulates through the subsoil materials, creating an electric field whose potential is measured through the electrodes that constitute the receiving circuit. This sequence is intercalated between all the electrodes used.
The objective of the equipment used to obtain field data is to measure the differential mass resistivity of the ground, which is specially designed to perform measurements from 0.5 ohm-m to 9.999 ohm-m in 0.1 ohm-meter intervals. Subsequently, the information is processed, and the results are interpreted using software and mathematical models. The results of the vertical electrical probs are grouped together forming the Geoelectric profiles.
DCP STUDY (DYNAMIC CONE PENETROMETER)
The DCP study is used essentially to evaluate the bearing capacity of the soil, estimating the load capacity of the different layers that make up the structural support.
This study simultaneously detects the degree of heterogeneity of the soils that can be found in a section and the uniformity of compaction-consolidation of the material in a precise way. In addition, it allows the clear location of weak areas in the structural package of soils and therefore the cause of possible failures of soils, embankments, pavements, tracks, buildings, etc.
The study consists of introducing a penetration element to the ground, generally conical in shape, jointly and severally attached to 1.00-meter-long modular steel bars graduated every 10 cm. Penetration is carried out by striking a mass weighing approximately 30Kg on a bolster head placed on the top of the bar; said mass rises to a fixed height and is dropped freely. The test result is expressed as the number of strokes required for the penetrometer to enter a specified depth, and it is also translated into MPa.
D.1 THE INJECTION PROCESS
We provide solutions for Engineering based on an integrated system of state-of-the-art procedures and materials for application to soil stabilization and leveling of structures by injecting both pre-expanded or expandable polymers, of high density and hydro-insensitive, in a precise, safe, and fast way.
Some characteristics of the process are set forth below:
They can be poured, pumped, or injected into cavities, voids, and interstitial spaces.
They are pre-expanded resins before placement and with a short setting time, the resins displace existing liquids and can be applied under water.
The resin flows only under applied pressure, gels and begins to harden. Its expansion characteristics are controllable, and the material is not wasted.
Our resins are environmentally neutral, inert, solvent-free, non-toxic and non-flammable.
With our resins, we can fill disused underground tanks, they can absorb hydrocarbons reducing the danger of explosion.
We rectify wells, pipes, culverts, anchoring in slopes, railway lines, as well as bridge slabs.
We work in sections and if necessary, at night.
No digging, no water, no mess.
No need to evacuate buildings if they are applied in that type of structure.
Lifting, stabilization and re-leveling of structures. Our method is also useful for sealing leaks in these situations.
We have in-situ expansive polymers, these have a very wide range of resilient behavior depending on the limits to which the structures are to be subjected.
The resins combine and expand immediately to fill any void, compact the soil, strengthen it. Afterwards, if necessary, the expanding resin lifts and re-levels the structure.
Polymer injection is a fast process, since once the problem is identified, a series of holes are made with diameters between half an inch and no more than 3” in some cases and at different depths. Polymer reaches design strength within minutes of injection.
Advantages of polymer injection:
Minimal interruption of customer operations
Quick execution of injection work
No need to evacuate the building
No excavations required
Areas of application:
Oil & Gas industry
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Rambai • Permatang Tinggi • Sungai Acheh • Sungai Lembu • Sungai Udang • Teluk Tempoyak • Aman • Betong • Gedung • Jerejak • Kendi • Lovers' • Penang • Rimau • Tikus Sikalastic 841 ST, Sikalastic 8800, Sikalastic 851, Mapei Purtop 1000, Mapei Purtop 600, Fosroc polyurea WPE, Fosroc polyurea WH 200, Fosroc polyurea FLM, Fosroc polyurea WCS, Quickseal MP250, Quickseal MP500, Quickseal PP350, Quickseal Reflect Silver, Quickspray Industrial W, Quickspray Supreme AL, Quickspray Supreme W, Quickspray Supreme HE, Quickseal PP350, Quickspray Supreme HP, Quickfloor 400, Quickfloor 500, Quickfloor 500 V, Quickspray Supreme HP Kedah: Baling District • Bandar Baharu District • Kota Setar District • Kuala Muda District • Kubang Pasu District • Kulim District • Langkawi District • Padang Terap District • Pendang District • Pokok Sena District • Sik District • Yan District • Alor Tajar • Anak Bukit • Baling • Bedong • Bukit Kayu Hitam • Bukit Pinang • Bukit Selambau • Changlun • Durian Burung • Guar 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